1.1. Situation of production.
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Chart no.1 and 2 showed casting industry situation in 2002 of countries through production result ( by tons). For the casting Iron and Steel( chart 1), China continues to lead in the world and account for 26% of total global production, rose by 9% compared to 2011 . The following is United State with 16%, down 0,5% compared to 2011.
Chart 1: The output of casting Iron and Steel ( by tons) in the countries in the world.
The following statistics the output of casting ferrous metal ( chart2), United State American continues to lead in almost kind of alloys , accounting for 26% in total global production, rising 2% compared to 2001. The second is Japan with 13%, in which the aluminum alloys casting accounted for 97% in total production of casting ferrous metal of this country. China accounted for 11%. Mehico has the fastest growth rate of 6% compared to 2.9% in 1995.
Chart 2: The output of casting ferrous metal (by tons) in the countries in the world.
The main partner of the casting industry is automobile industry ( accounting for 50% market share), general engineering about 30% and construction with 10% . In which more 60% iron casting mainly used in automobile industy, steel casting mainly used in construction , machine manufacturing and industrial valve.
Casting production situation noted the emergence of the developing countries such as: China, India, Brazil, Mehico,…
1.2. The Scale of manufacturers.
Casting production is using less labor, factories due to increased levels of automation. The relationship between scale of plant and productivity and labor are shown in Figure 3:
Figure 3: The data about the productivity of production iron and steel casting in European countries
1.3. Cost and Profit
Casting industry costs much energy , primarily natural gas and electricity. In particular, smelting stage is the most energy consuming when accounting for 55% of total energy use .The next is the stages of molding and colorectal , accounting for 20%.
Figure 4: The energy cost of the stages in the casting production.
In recent times, casting industry in some developing countries have declined because automobile industry go down and are undergone the fierce competition from developing countries such as : China, India, Brazil , Mehico,.. . Accordingly, the added value of casting are produced in developed countries reducing . Notably is the U.S where the added value decreased by 5.4% in stage of 2000 -2004.
Situation analysis showed that the scasting manufacturers in VietNam have two major problems: lack of reasonable management model from design and investment orientation.
2.1. Design management model of casting manufacturers in Vietnam.
Currently, design management model of the casting producer in Vietnam organized by stages . In particular, each of stage operates independently, if a stage has a problem, manufacturers have to take a lot of time ( back from the beginning ) to adjust the design .This increases the time and design cost.
Fingure 5: Diagram of design management in most the casting manufacturers in Viet Nam
Another reason makes to increase highly time and cost. This is the development process of products undergoing many times of trial production.. Normally, after receiving requests from customer , manufacturers conduct designing the casting following with experiences and trial manufacturing . If it is unsuccessful, the manufacturer will contact customers to adjust the design. However, the preparation time and production cost have been increased by the trial manufacturing .
Figure 6: Process of casting design in Viet Nam.
Bold lines show the stages spending much cost. Large frame include the stages in the casting plant .
Design processing doesn’t estimate the production cost correctly _ basis of giving quotations for customers. This is by the diversity of the casting so cost of production calculation model is diferrent for different the castings. Thus, the manufacturers may give inaccurately quotations , sometime causing damage to ourselves and our customers.
2.2. Lack of capitalandinvestment orientations.
Most of the casting manufacturers have low level of technology, obsolete equipment, the casting manufacturing at plus average rate to high scrap rate so making low business profit. In addition, the government, the public and manufacturers still do not fully understand the advantages of the casting and the role of the casting technology with the economy. The result is the lack of interest and investment capital to develope in a long time.
Recently, with available capital , most enterprises invest in new casting technology, automatic production line, testing-analysis equipments ,… Obviously, this brings positive changes but it can not help the industry to develop a higher level because testing-analysis equipments do not help reduce waste ( just reducing the amount of returned goods), new technology and increasing productivity only increases damage if design is not good ( according to statistics about 90% casting defects are caused by design errors).
On the other hand , as investment efficiency of the previous enterprises haven’t met requirements so they don’t create motivation for the business peers.
Casting production situation showed the demands for casting of large developed countries and gradually dependent on import. In addition, it also noted the emergence of developing countries. This shows the casting industry tendency moving from developed countries to developing countries increasingly.
The application of the technology, equipment and tools are updated, modern with more and more austere demands from customers have made castings from common goods into products with added value
Before this situation, Vietnam's manufacturers have the opportunity to more developed. To take advantage of opportunities, manufacturers need to improve the level of design and reasonable investment orientation. Through researching activities, industry trends in the world and own working experience , the authors found that concurrent engineering can solve problems and increase the level of design and investment orientation for manufacturers in Viet Nam.
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